What is Gum Disease / Periodontal disease?

Gum disease is an infection of the tissues and bones surrounding the teeth.
Gum disease is usually caused by a build-up of plaque on the teeth. Plaque is a collection of millions of bacteria that cause an infection.

There are two main stages of gum disease:

  • Gingivitis
  • Periodontitis 

Gingivitis
Gingivitis is an early stage of gum disease. It affects only the gums surrounding the teeth. Gingivitis occurs when plaque builds up on teeth.

Periodontitis
Periodontitis is an advanced gum disease that may occur if gingivitis is not treated. It spreads below the gums to damage the tissues and bone that support teeth.

What are the Symptoms of Gum Disease?

These are some of the most common symptoms of Gingivitis. Gingivitis is usually not painful so you may not be aware that you have Gingivitis.

  • Bleeding gums
  • Red Gums
  • Swollen Gums
  • Tender Gums

As Periodontisis is an advance gum disease, its symptoms are easier to see. Symptoms are:

  • Bad breath
  • Pus coming out from gums
  • Loose teeth
  • Change in your bite
  • Receding gums

What Causes Gum disease?

Gum Disease is caused due to a build-up of plaque on the teeth and gums. Plaque contains bacteria.

Some of the reasons why gum disease occurs are:

  • Not brushing properly and cleaning your teeth
  • Smoking
  • Chewing tobacco
  • Family history of having gum disease
  • High stress levels
  • Diseases like diabetes, cancer or AIDS
  • Low immune system resulting from low vitamin diet or high sugar diet
What is the Treatment for Gum Disease?

Treatment for Gingivitis – If gum disease is found in the early stages of gingivitis, this is easily treated with a general clean from your dentist.

Treatment for Periodontitis – Once your gum disease has progressed to the next stage, (periodontitis) this would require a deep clean from your dentist. This consist of several appointments, first the dentist would numb the area to be treated, and with the use of specific dental equipment the dentist would clean deep under the gum, removing all the plaque and bacteria.

If the gum disease is more advance, a specialist (Periodontisit) may be required to perform another deep clean or even a gingival flap surgery to treat the gum disease.